The Commodity Futures Trade Regulatory Agency (BAPPEBTI) is the regulatory body that oversees commodity futures trading in Indonesia. As one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing developing economies, Indonesia has seen increasing interest in commodity derivatives markets over the past decade. BAPPEBTI plays a crucial role in fostering orderly, fair and efficient trading of commodity futures and options in the country.


Commodity futures and options enable producers, consumers and traders to hedge against price risks and discover fair market value for commodities. However, these markets need effective regulation to protect participants from manipulation, fraud and excessive speculation. BAPPEBTI is mandated to regulate commodity derivatives trading in Indonesia. It formulates rules, enforces compliance, promotes fair practices and educates the public about these markets.

BAPPEBTI was established in 1999 under the Ministry of Trade. It oversees trading of agricultural, energy and metal commodity futures and options on the Indonesia Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (ICDX) and Indonesia Derivatives Clearing House (IDCH). BAPPEBTI’s regulatory oversight spans exchange governance, member compliance, product approval, market surveillance and enforcement. It has played a key role in the growth of commodity derivatives markets in Indonesia.

History and Organizational Structure

Commodity futures trading began in Indonesia in 1912 with the establishment of the Batavia Beurscommissie och Effectenhandel. Trading was halted during World War II and resumed in 1952. However, activity remained subdued until the 1980s when widespread financial deregulation attracted interest in derivatives.

The Jakarta Futures Exchange (JFX) was launched in 1995. However, it failed within two years due to the Asian financial crisis. This highlighted the need for an effective regulator. Hence, BAPPEBTI was established in 1999 under the Directorate General of Internal Trade at the Ministry of Trade.

BAPPEBTI is headed by a Chairman who reports to the Director General of Internal Trade. It has several departments handling licensing, compliance, enforcement, product approval, market oversight, clearing and settlement and public education. BAPPEBTI also collaborates with related regulators like Bank Indonesia, the Financial Services Authority and the Directorate General of Taxes.

Regulatory Responsibilities

As an independent regulator modeled after the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, BAPPEBTI has wide-ranging regulatory authority over commodity derivatives markets in Indonesia.

Exchange Regulation

BAPPEBTI formulates rules for the structure, governance, membership criteria and trading framework of commodity derivatives exchanges. It reviews and approves exchange by-laws and regulations. BAPPEBTI oversees the board composition, shareholding pattern and governance practices of ICDX to ensure fairness, accountability and compliance with regulations.

Intermediary Oversight

BAPPEBTI registers and regulates commodity brokers, dealers, advisors and fund managers that intermediate derivatives trades. It specifies eligibility criteria in terms of competence, net worth, infrastructure and risk management capabilities. BAPPEBTI monitors their conduct and takes enforcement action for violations.

Product Approval

BAPPEBTI reviews and approves commodity futures and options contracts proposed by ICDX. It examines contract specifications, delivery mechanisms, settlement procedures and risk management systems. BAPPEBTI verifies adequacy of warehouse infrastructure and logistics for physical delivery on commodity contracts. It can modify or reject products that it deems deficient.

Market Surveillance

BAPPEBTI monitors trading activity in commodity derivatives markets to detect potential manipulation, insider trading and other unfair practices. It utilizes data analysis software to identify abnormal price patterns, concentrated positions and coordinated trades across accounts. BAPPEBTI investigates such red flags and takes disciplinary action where necessary.


BAPPEBTI is authorized to inspect books and records of exchange members for audits and investigations. It can summon any person for examination under oath regarding violations. BAPPEBTI can impose warnings, fines, trading bans, revocation of membership and other penalties on individuals and firms for flouting regulations. It can also initiate criminal prosecution in egregious cases.

Clearing Corporation Regulation

As counterparty to all trades, clearing houses underpin the integrity of derivatives markets. BAPPEBTI regulates IDCH including its membership criteria, collateral and margin requirements, risk management framework, settlement procedures and default handling. It ensures that IDCH has adequate financial resources and risk modeling capabilities.

Investor Protection

BAPPEBTI issues advisories and warnings to alert investors about emerging risks. It mandates appropriate disclosure by brokers to ensure investors understand product risks. BAPPEBTI specifies know-your-customer and suitability norms for brokers to prevent mis-selling. It operates an arbitration process for speedy redressal of investor grievances against members.

Public Education

BAPPEBTI conducts education programs to improve public understanding of commodity derivatives markets and prudent trading practices. It has issued publications explaining functions and benefits of these markets for producers, consumers and investors. BAPPEBTI officials participate in seminars, workshops and media interactions to increase awareness.

Key Enforcement Actions

BAPPEBTI has taken strong enforcement action in several cases to establish credibility and deter violations:

  • In 2000, it imposed a record $1.2 million fine on an exchange member for massive defaults on client contracts.
  • In 2010, BAPPEBTI fined a broker $500,000 for misappropriating client funds and suspended its membership for one year.
  • In 2015, it banned a dealer for six months and seized profits of $180,000 gained from manipulative trading of palm oil futures.
  • In 2018, BAPPEBTI issued a public warning against an unlicensed commodity adviser illegally soliciting customers.
  • In 2020, it levied a $730,000 penalty on ICDX for risk management lapses and ordered an overhaul of systems and controls.

Such proactive enforcement enhanced confidence in fairness of Indonesian commodity markets. But BAPPEBTI faces challenges in keeping pace with the innovation and complexity of modern trading practices.

Regulatory Challenges

As Indonesian commodity derivatives markets continue to evolve, BAPPEBTI needs to address several challenges:


Increased electronic trading and new platforms like cryptocurrencies could enable unfair practices that are difficult to detect. BAPPEBTI has to upgrade its surveillance systems, hire more tech experts and collaborate with cybersecurity agencies.

Product Innovation

Structured derivatives and exotics multiply risks from volatile underlyings, leverage and valuation complexity. BAPPEBTI requires more sophisticated modeling and risk assessment skills for evaluating such products.

Intermediary Oversight

The derivatives brokerage sector is consolidating while new types of automated advisory services emerge. BAPPEBTI needs to reform capital and conduct norms for changing intermediation models.

Cross-border Coordination

Global trading and position management make it easier to evade domestic regulations. BAPPEBTI has to harmonize its rules and share information with overseas regulators to plug gaps.


Expanding responsibilities, technology investments and skilled manpower requirements are straining BAPPEBTI’s resources. Higher user fees and increased budgetary support are necessary to ensure BAPPEBTI has adequate funding.


Effective regulation has been crucial to the growth of commodity derivatives markets in Indonesia. Starting from scratch in 1999, BAPPEBTI has formulated a comprehensive regulatory framework aligned with global best practices. Its proactive supervision and enforcement has enhanced transparency and integrity of these markets.

However, BAPPEBTI needs to continuously adapt regulations and upgrade capabilities to keep pace with market innovation. With greater resources and cross-border coordination, BAPPEBTI can foster the safe and efficient development of Indonesian commodity derivatives markets. But a regulatory system is only as strong as the people who implement it. Attracting skilled experts and investing in their continuous training is vital to making BAPPEBTI an institution of global repute.